The original article was published by Centre For Disease Control and Prevention. The Kashmir Radar published it with a little modification. ( Antibiotic Resistance)
Antibiotic resistance shows up when germs like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to resist the efficacy of drugs designed to kill them. That means the bacteria or fungi are not killed and they continue to grow.
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant germs are not treated with ease, and sometimes it becomes impossible for the medical professionals to treat them. In most cases, antibiotic-resistant infections require prolonged hospital stays, more follow-up doctor visits, and expensive and toxic alternatives.
In technical terms, it is not the body that becomes resistant to antibiotics; it is that bacteria have developed resistantance to the antibiotics designed to kill them.
Antibiotic Resistance Is A Threat To Everyone
Antibiotic resistance has the capability to affect people at any stage of life, as well as the healthcare, veterinary, and agriculture industries, making it one of the world’s most urgent public health problems.
Going by the statistics, each year in the U.S., at least 2.8 million people are infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria or fungi, and more than 35,000 people die as a result.
No one can completely avoid the risk of resistant infections, but some people are found to be at a greater risk than others (for example, people with chronic illnesses). If antibiotics lose their effectiveness, then we lose the ability to treat infections.
Many medical advances are dependent on the ability to fight infections using antibiotics, including joint replacements, organ transplants, cancer therapy, and treatment of chronic diseases like diabetes, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Brief History of Resistance and Antibiotics
Penicillin, the first commercialized antibiotic, was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. Ever since, there has been discovery and acknowledgement of resistance alongside the discovery of new antibiotics. In fact, germs will always look for ways to survive and resist new drugs. More and more, germs are sharing their resistance with one another, making it harder for us to keep up.
|Antibiotic Approved or Released||Year Released||Resistant Germ Identified||Year Identified|
Penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Plasmid-mediated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
|Amphotericin B||1959||Amphotericin B-resistant Candida auris||2016|
|Methicillin||1960||Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus||1960|
|Extended-spectrum cephalosporins||1980 (Cefotaxime)||Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- producing Escherichia coli||1983|
|Azithromycin||1980||Azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae||2011|
|Imipenem||1985||Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae||1996|
|Ciprofloxacin||1987||Ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae||2007|
|Fluconazole||1990 (FDA approved)||Fluconazole-resistant Candida||1988|
|Daptomycin||2003||Daptomycin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus||2004|
|Ceftazidime-avibactam||2015||Ceftazidime-avibactam-resistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae||2015|